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Assertive Community Treatment

Submissions of links, readings, and other resources that support the work of Assertive Community Treatment are welcomed. Send them to: We appreciate your input.
Assertive Community Treatment of Persons with Severe Mental Illness, Leonard Stein, Alberto B. Santos; W.W. Norton and Company, Inc.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, IV; American Psychiatric Association

My Symptom Management Workbook: A Wellness Expedition; Wellness Consultation and Education, March 1996, Printing 2

Recovering from Psychosis: A Wellness Approach: A Three R's: Recovery Phase Course for Clients, Families, and Providers; P.R.N., Inc.

Schizophrenia Outcomes Module, Fischer E, Cuffel BJ, Owen RR, Burns BJ, Hargreaves W, Karson C, Lehman A, Shern D, Smith GR, Sullivan G. (1996). Little Rock, Arkansas: University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences.

Skills Training for Treating Borderline Personality Disorder, Marsha Linehan; Guilford

The Brief Symptom Index; Administration, scoring and procedure manual; Derogatis LR, Spencer N. (1982). Baltimore MD: Johns Hopkins.

A Manual for ACT Start-Up: Based on the PACT Model of Community Treatment for Persons with Severe and Persistent Mental Illness. By Deborah J. Allness, M.S.S.W. and Wiliam H. Knoedler, M.D., 2003.

A Comparison of Two Levels of Family Aided Assertive Community Treatment, Wilson R. McFarlane, MD, Robert A. Dushay, PhD, Peter Stastny, MD, Susan M. Deakins, MD, Bruce Link, PhD; Psychiatric Services, July 1996, Vol. 47, #7

A Multi-Site Study of Client Outcomes in Assertive Community Treatment, John H. McGrew, PhD, Gary R. Bond, PhD, Laura Dietzen, MS, Mike McKasson, MA, LCSW, Larry D. Miller, MSW; Psychiatric Services, July 1995, Vol. 46, #7

A Quality of Life Interview for the Chronically Mentally Ill, Lehman AF. (1988). Evaluation and Program Planning, 11:51-62.

Alternative to Mental Hospital Treatment I: Conceptual Model, Treatment Program, and Clinical Evaluation, Stein LI, Test MA. (1980). Archives of General Psychiatry, 37: 392-397.

Alternative to Mental Hospital Treatment II: Economic Benefit-Cost Analysis, Weisbrod BA, Test MA, Stein LI. (1980). Archives of General Psychiatry, 37:400-405.

Alternative to Mental Hospital Treatment III: Social Cost, Test MA, Stein LI. (1980). Archives of General Psychiatry, 409-412.

Alternative to the Hospital: A Controlled Study, Stein LI, Test MA, Marx AJ. (1975). American Journal of Psychiatry, 132: 517-522.

An Evaluation of Case Management, Franklin J, Solovitz B, Mason M, Clemons JR, Miller GE. (1987). American Journal of Public Health, 77: 674-678.

Assertive Case Management in Three CMHCs: A Controlled Study, Bond GR, Miller LD, Krumwied RD, Ward RS. (1989). Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 39: 411-418.

Assertive Community Treatment and Case Management for Schizophrenia, Scott JE, Dixon LB. (1995). Schizophrenia Bulletin, 21: 657-668.

Assertive Community Treatment for Patients with Co-occurring Severe Mental Illness and Substance Abuse Disorder: A Clinical Trial, Drake RE, McHugo GJ, Clark RE, Teague GB, Xie H, Miles K, Ackerson T. (1998). American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68: 201-215.

Assertive Community Treatment for People with Severe Mental Disorders, Marshall M, Lockwood A. (Cochrane Review), The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 1999. Oxford: Update Software.

Assertive Community Treatment and Reference Groups: An Evaluation of their Effectiveness for Young Adults with Serious Mental Illness and Substance Abuse Problems, Bond GR, McDonel EC, Miller LD. (1991). Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 15: 31-43.

Assertive Community Treatment: An Evaluation of the Experimental Evidence, Olfson M. (1990). Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 41: 634-641.

Assertive Community Treatment: An Update of Randomized Trials, Burns BJ, Santos AB. (1995). Psychiatric Services, 46: 669-675.

Assertive Community Treatment Initiatives: Results from a Survey of Selected State Mental Health Authorities, Meisler N. (1997). Community Support Network News, 11 (4): 3-5.

Assertive Community Treatment: Twenty-five Years of Gold, Lisa Dixon, MD, MPH; Psychiatric Services, June 2000, Vol. 51, #6

Assertive Community Treatment Versus Usual Care in Engaging and Retaining Clients with Severe Mental Illness, Heidi A. Herincks, MA, Ronald F. Kinney, MS, Gregory N. Clarke, PhD, Robert I. Paulson, PhD; Psychiatric Services, Oct. 1997, Vol. 48, #10

Basic Rules of Writing Treatment Goals and Objectives Practical Communications: Accreditation and Certification; Vol. IV, #3

Benchmarking Treatment of Schizophrenia: A Comparison of Service Delivery by National Government and By State and Local Providers, Rosenheck RA, Hoff R, Steinwachs D, Lehman A. (2000). Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, 188: 209-16.

Case Management and Assertive Community Treatment in Europe, Burns T, Fioritti A, Holloway F, Malm U, Rossler W. (2001). Psychiatric Services, 52: 631-6.

Client Perspectives on Helpful Ingredients of Assertive Community Treatment, John H. McGrew, Robert Wilson, Gary R. Bond; Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal (Client Perspectives on Assertive Community Treatment), Winter 1996, Vol. 19, #3

Clinical Case Management: Definition, Principles, Components, Kanter J. (1989). Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 40, 361-368.

Comments by Leonard Stein, Stein LI. (1990). Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 41:649-651.

Community Based Treatment for Severe Mental Illness: What Are the Benefits and Costs? Jack E. Scott, ScD, Lisa B. Dixon, MD, MPH, University of Maryland School of Medicine; Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, Spring 1999, Vol. 22, #4

Cost-effectiveness of Assertive Community Treatment Teams, Essock SM, Frisman LK, Kontos NJ. (1998). American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68: 179-190.

Cost Effectiveness of a Capitated Assertive Community Treatment Program, D.Chandler, G. Spicer, M. Wagner, W. Hargreaves; Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, Volume 22 Number 4.

Cost-effectiveness of Intensive Psychiatric Community Care for High Users of Inpatient Services, Rosenheck RA, Neale MS. (1998a). Archives of General Psychiatry, 55: 459-466.

Department of Veterans Affairs National Mental Health Program Performance Monitoring System: Fiscal Year 2000 Report, Rosenheck RA, Greenberg G, DiLella D. (2001). West Haven, CT: VA Northeast Program Evaluation Center Report.

Development and Validation of The Working Alliance Inventory, Horvath AO, and Greenberg L. (1989). Journal of Counseling Psychology, 36, 223-233.

Development, Implementation, and Monitoring of Intensive Psychiatric Community Care in The Department of Veterans Affairs, Rosenheck RA, Neale MS. (in press) In B. Dickey and L. Sederer (Eds.), Achieving Quality in Psychiatric and Substance Abuse Practice: Concepts and Case Reports.

Dissemination of Assertive Community Treatment Programs, Deci PA, Santos AB, Hiott W, Schoenwald S, Dias JK. (1995). Psychiatric Services, 46: 676-678.

Employment Outcomes for Clients with Severe Mental Illness in a PACT Model Replication, Robert E. Becker, MD, Neil Meisler, MSW, Gene Stormer, MSW, Michael J. Brondino, PhD; Psychiatric Services, Jan. 1999, Vol. 46, #7

Effect of Case Management on Re-hospitalization and Utilization of Ambulatory Care Services, Curtis JL, Millman EJ, Streuning E, D'Ercole A. (1992). Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 43: 895-899.

Ethical Issues in Policy Advocacy, Schlesinger M. (1995). Health Affairs, 14 (3): 23-29.

Evaluating Use of Continuous Treatment Teams for Persons with Mental Illness and Substance Abuse, Gregory B. Teague, PhD, Robert E. Drake, MD, PhD, Theimann H. Ackerson, MSSW; Psychiatric Services, July 1995, Vol. 46, #7

Evaluation of the Harbinger Program, Mulder R. (1985). 1982-1985. Lansing, MI: Michigan Department of Mental Health.

Explorations in Quality Assessment and Monitoring: The Definition of Quality and Approaches to its Assessment, Vol. 1, Donabedian A. (1980). Ann Arbor, MI: Health Administration Press.

Extrohospital Management of Severe Mental Illness, Marx AJ, Test MA, Stein LI. (1973). Archives of General Psychiatry, 29: 505-511.

Family-aided Assertive Community Treatment: A Comprehensive Rehabilitation and Intensive Case Management Approach for Persons with Schizophrenic Disorders, McFarlane WR, Stastny P, Deakins S. (1992). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass: New Directions for Mental Health Services, 53: 43-54.

Harbinger I: The Development and Evaluation of the First PACT Replication, Mowbray CT, Collins ME, Plum TB, Masterton T, Mulder R. (1997). Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 25: 105-123.

Harbinger II: Deployment and Evolution of Assertive Community Treatment in Michigan, Mowbray CT, Plum TB, Masterton T. (1997). Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 25: 125-139.

Impact of a Case Manager Program on Psychiatric Aftercare, Wasylenki DA, Goering PN, Lancee WJ, Ballantyne R, Farkas M. (1985). Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 173:303-308.

Implementing Assertive Community Treatment Teams, Susan M. Essock, PhD, Nina Kontos, PhD; Psychiatric Services, July 1995, Vol. 46, #7

Intensive Psychiatric Community Care (IPCC): Dissemination of a New Approach to Care for Veterans with Serious Mental Iillness in The Department of Veterans Affairs, Rosenheck RA, Neale MS, Baldino R, Cavallaro L. (1997). West Haven, CT: VA Northeast Program Evaluation Center Report.

Intensive Psychiatric Community Care (IPCC) in the Department of Veterans Affairs: The Third National Performance Monitoring Report, FY 1999, Neale MS, Rosenheck RA, Baldino R., Cavallaro L. (2000). West Haven, CT: VA Northeast Program Evaluation Center Report.

Inter-site Variation in Impact of Intensive Psychiatric Community Care on Hospital Use, Rosenheck RA, Neale MS. (1998b). American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68: 191-200.

Issues in Estimating the Cost of Innovative Mental Health Programs, Rosenheck, R.A., Neale, M.S., and Frisman, L.K. (1995). Psychiatric Quarterly, 66, 9-31.

Measuring the Fidelity of Implementation of a Mental Health Program Model, McGrew JH, Bond GR, Dietzen, LL et al. (1994). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62: 670-678.

Medication: The Foundation of Recovery, Edward G. Francell Jr.; Innovations and Research, 1994, Vol. 3, #4

Mental Health Team Leadership and Consumers' Satisfaction and Quality of Life, Patrick W. Corrigan, PsyD, Sarah E. Lickey, AM, John Campion, BS, Fadwa Rashid, BA; Psychiatric Services, June 2000, Vol. 51, #6

Minds and Hearts: Priorities in Mental Health Services, Boyle P. (1995). In PJ Boyle and D Callahan (Eds.) What Price Mental Health? Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 3-44.

Models of Community Care for Severe Mental Illness: A Review of Research on Case Management, Kim T. Mueser, Gary R. Bond, Robert E. Drake, Sandra G. Resnick; Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1998, Vol. 24, #1

Modifying the PACT Model: Preserving Critical Elements, Kerry R. Hachance, MA, LMSW, Alberto B. Santos, MD; Psychiatric Services, June 1995, Vol. 46, #6

Moving Assertive Community Treatment into Standard Practice, Phillips SD, Burns BJ, Edgar ER, Mueser KT, Linkins KW, Rosenheck RA, Drake RE, McDonell Herr EC. (2001). Psychiatric Services, 52: 771-9.

Moving Beyond the Illness: Factors Contributing to Gaining and Maintaining Employment. K. Cunningham, R. Wolbert, M.B. Brockmeier; American Journal of Community Psychology, Aug 2000, 28(4) p 481-94.

Multisite Experimental Cost Study of Intensive Psychiatric Community Care, Rosenheck R, Neale M, Leaf P, Milstein R, Frisman L. (1995). Schizophrenia Bulletin, 21: 129-140.

National Mental Health Program Performance Monitoring System: Fiscal year 2000 Report, Rosenheck RA, Greenberg G, DiLella D. (2001). West Haven, CT: Northeast Program Evaluation Center.

Obligation to The Least Well Off in Setting Mental Health Service Priorities: A consensus Statement, Rosenheck R, Armstrong M, Callahan D, Dea R, Del Vecchio P, Flynn L, Fox RC, Goldman HH, Horvath T, Munoz R. (1998). Psychiatric Services, 49: 1273-4, 1290.

Overview: Model programs for chronic mental patients, Bachrach LL. (1980). American Journal of Psychiatry, 137: 1023-1031.

P/ACT Dissemination and Implementation From Three States and the Department of Veterans Affairs, Allness D, Detrick A, Neale M, Plum T, Olsen MC, Rutkowski P. (1997). Community Support Network News, 11 (4): 8-9.

Principles for Priority Setting in Mental Health Services and Their Implications for the Least Well Off, Rosenheck RA. (1999). Psychiatric Services, 50: 653-658.

Program Fidelity in Assertive Community Treatment: Development and Use of a Measure, Teague GB, Bond GR, Drake RE. (1998). American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68: 216-232.

Providing Assertive Community Treatment for Severely Mentally Ill Patients in a Rural Area, Alberto B. Santos, MD, Paul A. Deci, MD, Kerry R. LaChance, MA, LMSW, James K. Dias, Theresa B. Sloop, RN, Thomas G. Hiers, PhD, Joseph J. Bevilacquea, PhD; Hospital and Community Psychiatry, Jan. 1993, Vol. 44, #1

Setting Mental Health Priorities: Problems and Possibilities, Callahan D. (1995). In PJ Boyle and D Callahan (Eds.) What Price Mental Health? Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, pp. 175-192

Staff Morale in Michigan's Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) Teams, Thomas Plum, MSW; Rural Community Mental Health, Vol. 21, #3, Special Issue

State-by-State Availability of PACT Model Programs, National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI)

The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Overall JE, and Gorham DR. (1962). Psychological Reports, 10: 799-812.

The Global Assessment Scale, Endicott J, Spitzer RL, Fleiss JL, Cohen J. (1976). Archives of General Psychiatry, 33: 766-771.

The PACT Advocacy Guide, National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI)

The Training in Community Living Model, Test, MA. (1992). In R.P. Liberman (ed.), Handbook of Psychiatric Rehabilitation. New York: Macmillan, 153-170.

Therapeutic Alliance and Outcome in a VA Intensive Case Management Program Neale MS, Rosenheck RA. (1995). Psychiatric Services, 46: 719-721.

Transferring Clients from Intensive Case Management: Impact on Client Functioning, Michelle P. Salyers, MS, Theodore W. Masterton, MSW, Dawn M. Fekete, MS, Jeffery J. Picone, MEd, Gary R. Bond, PhD; American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, April 1998, Vol. 68, #2

Translating Research into Practice: The Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) Treatment Recommendations, Lehman AF, Steinwachs DM, Co-investigators of the PORT project (1998). Schizophrenia Bulletin, 24(1): 1-10.

VHA Mental Health Intensive Case Management, Under Secretary for Health, US Department of Veterans Affairs. (2000). VHA Directive 2000-034 (October 2, 2000). Veterans Health Administration.

Behavioral Health

The Journal of NAMI California

NAMI Advocate

Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal

Psychiatric Services

Case Management for Mentally Ill Patients: Theory and Practice, Harris M, Bergman HC. (1993). Langhorne, Pennsylvania: Harwood Academic.

Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder, Marsha Linehan; Guilford

Consumers as Providers in Psychiatric Rehabilitation; International Association of Psychosocial Rehabilitation Services

Dual Diagnosis-Counseling the Mentally Ill Substance Abuser, Katie Evans, J. Michael Sullivan; Guilford Press

Night Falls Fast, Kay Redfield Jamison; Alfred A. Knopf

Overcoming Addictions-Skill Training for People with Schizophrenia, Lisa Roberts, Andrew Shaner, Thad Eckman; W.W. Norton and Company

The PDR Family Guide to Prescription Drugs; Medical Economics Data

The Mad Among Us; Grob GN. (1994). New York: Free Press.

The Quiet Room, Lori Schiller, Amanda Bennett; Warner Books

Readings in Dual Diagnosis; Internal Association of Psychosocial Rehabilitation Services

Schizophrenia and Manic Depressive Disorder, E. Fuller Torrey, Ann Bowler, Edward Taylor, Irving Gottesman; Basic Books

Staying Sober: A Guide for Relapse Prevention, Terence Gorski, Merlene Miller; Herald House/Independence Press

An Unquiet Mind, Kay Redfield; Alfred Knopf

Breaking the Dark Horse: A Family Copes with Manic Depression; Writers Group/Trident Productions

Community Encounters: A Co-Training Effort: Families and Law Enforcement Part IV; CAMI

Hospital without Walls; Bridget Harron

Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia; Janssen Pharmaceutica, Inc.

I'm Still Here. The Truth About Schizophrenia; Wheeler Communications Group, Inc.

Understanding and Communicating with a Person who is Hallucinating, Mary Moller; Salzmann and Associates

Women and Mental Illness; NAMI California, AB 1278

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Brighton, MI 48116

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Phone: 810.227.1859
Fax: 415.382.0664

Please note: The ACT Association is unable to respond to requests for information regarding the availability of ACT services or treatment in specific locations nor make any treatment referrals.

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Last Revised: Oct 20, 2012